A Simple Guide to the Endocannabinoid System
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex cell-signaling system identified by scientist in the early 1990s while exploring THC, a widely known cannabinoid. Cannabinoids are compounds found in Cannabis Plants.Scientist and Doctors are still trying to fully understand the ECS. But so far, we understand it plays a role in regulating a range of functions and processes, including:sleepmoodappetitememoryreproduction and fertilityThe ECS exists and is actively working in your body even if you don’t use cannabis.How does it work?The ECS involves three core components: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.EndocannabinoidsEndocannabinoids, also called endogenous cannabinoids, are molecules created by your body. They’re similar to cannabinoids, but they’re produced by your body.Experts have identified two key endocannabinoids so far:
anandamide (AEA) is a highly potent endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors.2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG) is a unique molecular species of monoacylglycerolThese endocannabinoids help keep internal body functions running smoothly. Your body produces them as needed, making it difficult to know what typical levels are for each.Endocannabinoid receptorsThese receptors are found throughout your body. Endocannabinoids bind to them in order to signal that the ECS System needs to take action.There are two main endocannabinoid receptors:CB1 receptors, which are mostly found in the central nervous systemCB2 receptors, which are mostly found in your peripheral nervous system, especially immune cellsEndocannabinoids can bind to either receptor. The effects that result depend on where the receptor is located and which endocannabinoid it binds to.For example, endocannabinoids might target CB1 receptors in a spinal nerve to relieve pain. Others might bind to a CB2 receptor in your immune cells to signal that your body’s experiencing inflammation, a common sign of autoimmune disorders.EnzymesEnzymes are responsible for breaking down endocannabinoids once they’ve carried out their function.There are two main enzymes responsible for this:Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase, better known as (FHHA) which breaks down AEAMonoacylglycerol Acid Lipase, also known as (MAGL) which typically breaks down 2-AGWhat Are Its Functions?The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is complicated, and experts haven’t yet determined exactly how it works or all of its potential functions.Research has linked the Endocannabinoid System or ECS to the following processes:appetite and digestionmetabolismchronic paininflammation and other immune system responsesmoodlearning and memorymotor controlsleepcardiovascular system functionmuscle formationbone remodeling and growthliver functionreproductive system functionstressskin and nerve functionThese functions all contribute to homeostasis better known as balance, which refers to stability of your internal environment. For example, if an outside force, such as pain from an injury or a fever, throws off your body’s homeostasis, your ECS kicks in to help your body return to its ideal or normal operational state of balance.Today, experts believe that maintaining homeostasis is the primary role of the ECS.How does THC interact with the ECS?Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the main cannabinoids found in cannabis. It’s the compound that gets you “high.”Once in your body, THC interacts with your ECS by binding to receptors, just like endocannabinoids. It’s powerful partly because it can bind to both CB1 and CB2 receptors. This allows it to have a range of effects on your body and mind, some more desirable than others. For example, THC may help to reduce pain and stimulate your appetite. But it can also cause paranoia and anxiety in some cases.Experts are currently looking into ways to produce synthetic THC cannabinoids that interact with the ECS in only beneficial ways.The other major cannabinoid found in cannabis is cannabidiol (CBD). Unlike THC, CBD doesn’t make you “high” and typically doesn’t cause any negative effects.Experts aren’t completely sure how CBD interacts with the ECS. But they do know that it doesn’t bind to CB1 or CB2 receptors the way THC does.Instead, many believe it works by preventing endocannabinoids from being broken down or by boosting the endocannabinoid system. This allows them to have more of an effect on your body. Others believe that CBD binds to a receptor that hasn’t been discovered yet.While the details of how it works are still under debate, research suggests that CBD can help with pain, nausea, and other symptoms associated with multiple conditions.How does CBD interact with the ECS?The other major cannabinoid found in cannabis is cannabidiol (CBD). Unlike THC, CBD doesn’t make you “high” and typically doesn’t cause any negative effects.Experts aren’t completely sure how CBD interacts with the ECS. But they do know that it doesn’t bind to CB1 or CB2 receptors the way THC does.Instead, many believe it works by preventing endocannabinoids from being broken down. This allows them to have more of an effect on your body. Others believe that CBD binds to a receptor that hasn’t been discovered yet.While the details of how it works are still under debate, research suggests that CBD can help with pain, nausea, and other symptoms associated with multiple conditions.What about endocannabinoid deficiency?Some experts believe in a theory known as Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD). This theory suggests that low endocannabinoid levels in your body or ECS dysfunction can contribute to the development of certain conditions.A 2016 article reviewing over 10 years of research on the subject suggests the theory could explain why some people develop migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome.None of these conditions have a clear underlying cause. They’re also often resistant to treatment and sometimes occur alongside each other.If CECD does play any kind of role in these conditions, targeting the ECS or endocannabinoid production could be the missing key to treatment, but more research is needed.The bottom lineThe ECS plays a very important role in keeping your internal processes stable. But there’s still a lot we don’t know about it. As experts develop a better understanding of the ECS, it may eventually hold the key to treating several conditions that doctors and science are currently struggling to treat.